Racial Equity
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity


Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22

What does this measure?

The number of single-parent families with children under 18, as a percent of all families with children under 18 and reported by various racial and ethnic groups.

Why is this important?

Single-parent families may experience more stress and economic strain than dual-parent households with two incomes. Children in these families can be at risk of poorer health and educational outcomes. However, children may also have opportunities to build resilience and experience a larger community through the support of extended family and friends.

How does our county compare?

In 2018-22, 24% of White, and 57% of both African American and Hispanic families in Lancaster County were single-parent families. Since 2008-12, rates among Hispanic families increased by 6 percentage points while the rate decreased by 3 points for White families. The rate among African American families was essentially unchanged with a decrease of one percentage point. The county's rate of single-parent Hispanic families was higher than the statewide and national rate, while the rates for African American and White families in Lancaster were lower than the state and nation.

Within Lancaster County, the City of Lancaster's rates were the same or higher than the County's among all groups, with 47% of White families, 57% of Hispanic families, and 59% of African American families headed by a single parent.

Why do these disparities exist?

Explanations about why more children of color are growing up in single-parent households include the deliberate dismantling of Black families during slavery and its enduring influence on family structure. The high incarceration rates of men of color, economic strain and changing attitudes about marriage also influence these disparities.

Notes about the data

The multiyear figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are released annually in December.

Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanic or LatinoWhite
Lancaster County17%***57%57%24%
Lancaster City46%***59%*57%47%*
Lancaster County School Districts
School District of Lancaster30%***58%*62%42%
Cocalico School District0%***0%***0%***19%*
Columbia Borough School DistrictN/A***78%***42%***58%*
Conestoga Valley School District15%***71%***54%**25%*
Donegal School DistrictN/A***52%***65%***21%**
Eastern Lancaster County School District0%***0%***0%***20%***
Elizabethtown Area School DistrictN/A***0%***18%***22%*
Ephrata Area School District60%***0%***53%***28%
Hempfield School District14%***33%***30%***20%*
Lampeter-Strasburg School DistrictN/A***55%***72%***19%*
Manheim Central School District0%***0%***48%***19%**
Manheim Township School District0%***44%***63%**28%*
Penn Manor School District11%***45%***69%*29%
Pequea Valley School DistrictN/A***50%***49%***12%**
Solanco School District0%***80%***31%***20%*
Warwick School District51%***63%***88%***25%*
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0%***0%***N/A***23%***
Akron borough100%***N/A***68%***51%*
Christiana boroughN/A***N/A***0%***39%***
Columbia boroughN/A***78%***42%***58%*
Denver township0%***0%***0%***37%***
East Petersburg boroughN/A***N/A***22%***17%***
Elizabethtown boroughN/A***0%***0%***24%**
Ephrata boroughN/A***0%***11%***32%*
Lititz borough0%***N/A***78%***32%**
Manheim boroughN/A***N/A***0%***35%***
Marietta boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***8%***
Millersville borough0%***N/A***84%***26%***
Mount Joy boroughN/A***N/A***56%***43%**
Mountville boroughN/A***64%***100%***61%***
New Holland borough0%***0%***0%***5%***
Quarryville borough0%***100%***62%***47%**
Strasburg boroughN/A***N/A***100%***45%***
Terre Hill boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***17%***
Lancaster County Townships
Bart township0%***N/A***N/A***11%***
Brecknock townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***42%***
Caernarvon township0%***N/A***N/A***13%***
Clay townshipN/A***N/A***100%***10%***
Colerain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***3%***
Conestoga township0%***N/A***N/A***45%***
Conoy townshipN/A***N/A***75%***20%***
Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***6%***
Earl townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***4%***
East Cocalico township0%***N/A***0%***15%***
East Donegal townshipN/A***52%***100%***11%***
East Drumore township0%***N/A***0%***14%***
East Earl townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***17%***
East Hempfield township17%***0%***33%***13%*
East Lampeter township0%***59%***55%***36%**
Eden townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***13%***
Elizabeth townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***3%***
Ephrata township0%***N/A***N/A***23%**
Fulton townshipN/A***0%***N/A***41%***
Lancaster township0%***51%***76%**26%**
Leacock townshipN/A***100%***N/A***7%***
Little Britain townshipN/A***N/A***0%***36%***
Manheim township0%***44%***63%**28%*
Manor township20%***67%***61%**31%*
Martic townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***27%***
Mount Joy townshipN/A***N/A***0%***24%**
Paradise townshipN/A***N/A***20%***8%***
Penn township0%***0%***75%***7%***
Pequea township0%***0%***100%***19%***
Providence townshipN/A***N/A***100%***17%***
Rapho township0%***N/A***100%***18%**
Sadsbury townshipN/A***N/A***0%***7%***
Salisbury townshipN/A***0%***100%***16%**
Strasburg townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***24%***
Upper Leacock township44%***100%***82%***12%***
Warwick township75%***63%***100%***24%*
West Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***13%***
West Donegal townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***12%***
West Earl township0%***0%***0%***18%***
West Hempfield township0%***0%***15%***21%**
West Lampeter townshipN/A***79%***68%***10%***
Berks County20%***68%65%37%
Chester County7%**51%*45%*26%
Cumberland County8%***38%**43%*34%
Dauphin County26%**66%59%32%
Lebanon County17%***52%***55%*32%
York County32%**71%55%36%

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

Number of Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanic or LatinoWhite
Lancaster County257***1,8675,37913,356
Lancaster City96***971*1,8111,515*
Lancaster County School Districts
School District of Lancaster96***1,119*2,6511,799
Cocalico School District0***0***0***541*
Columbia Borough School District0***56***90***456*
Conestoga Valley School District22***397***460**876*
Donegal School District0***34***132***494**
Eastern Lancaster County School District0***0***0***713***
Elizabethtown Area School District0***0***46***691*
Ephrata Area School District29***0***126***1,134
Hempfield School District24***42***187***1,052*
Lampeter-Strasburg School District0***22***166***533*
Manheim Central School District0***0***62***469**
Manheim Township School District0***69***609**1,296*
Penn Manor School District16***26***613*1,260
Pequea Valley School District0***20***38***305**
Solanco School District0***24***50***766*
Warwick School District70***58***149***908*
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown borough0***0***0***82***
Akron borough29***0***54***259*
Christiana borough0***0***0***35***
Columbia borough0***56***90***456*
Denver township0***0***0***157***
East Petersburg borough0***0***34***73***
Elizabethtown borough0***0***0***254**
Ephrata borough0***0***11***593*
Lititz borough0***0***75***385**
Manheim borough0***0***0***230***
Marietta borough0***0***0***17***
Millersville borough0***0***64***100***
Mount Joy borough0***0***88***329**
Mountville borough0***42***42***234***
New Holland borough0***0***0***24***
Quarryville borough0***24***24***153**
Strasburg borough0***0***27***201***
Terre Hill borough0***0***0***25***
Lancaster County Townships
Bart township0***0***0***43***
Brecknock township0***0***0***459***
Caernarvon township0***0***0***69***
Clay township0***0***61***70***
Colerain township0***0***0***14***
Conestoga township0***0***0***158***
Conoy township0***0***46***80***
Drumore township0***0***0***19***
Earl township0***0***0***30***
East Cocalico township0***0***0***176***
East Donegal township0***34***44***116***
East Drumore township0***0***0***62***
East Earl township0***0***0***106***
East Hempfield township24***0***89***304*
East Lampeter township0***227***331***589**
Eden township0***0***0***35***
Elizabeth township0***0***0***12***
Ephrata township0***0***0***212**
Fulton township0***0***0***180***
Lancaster township0***148***840**304**
Leacock township0***20***0***42***
Little Britain township0***0***0***127***
Manheim township0***69***609**1,296*
Manor township16***26***420**718*
Martic township0***0***0***165***
Mount Joy township0***0***0***307**
Paradise township0***0***10***48***
Penn township0***0***50***58***
Pequea township0***0***129***119***
Providence township0***0***26***133***
Rapho township0***0***12***181**
Sadsbury township0***0***0***28***
Salisbury township0***0***28***215**
Strasburg township0***0***0***148***
Upper Leacock township22***170***129***93***
Warwick township70***58***74***511*
West Cocalico township0***0***0***126***
West Donegal township0***0***0***82***
West Earl township0***0***0***194***
West Hempfield township0***0***22***441**
West Lampeter township0***22***139***164***
Berks County116***1,9769,76713,831
Chester County492**1,731*2,472*14,350
Cumberland County160***289**691*9,018
Dauphin County539**4,9992,2506,634
Lebanon County45***222***1,393*4,437
York County334**2,8023,06217,824

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

Prekindergarten Participation
Student Performance on Grade 3 English
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math
High School Cohort Graduation Rate
Per-Student Spending
Students Receiving Special Education Services
Rate of Foster Care Admissions
Disengaged Youth
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Plans of High School Graduates
Enrollment in Local Colleges
College Graduation Rates
Brain Drain/Gain
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Average Charitable Giving
Voter Registration Rate
Voter Participation Rate
Age of Housing Stock
Violent Crime Rate
Incarceration Rate
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population Density
Air Quality
Water Use
Waterways Impaired by Pollution
Change in Population
Change in Population by Age and Gender
Population by Age
Population by Race/Ethnicity
People with Disabilities
Foreign-Born Population
Language Diversity
Change in Total Jobs
Change in Employment by Sector
Sector Share of Total Jobs
Workers by Occupation
Change in Labor Force
People Entering/Leaving County/Region for Work
Average Salary by Sector
Change in Average Salary Since 2000
Female to Male Earnings Ratio
Employer Size
Change in Number of Businesses by Sector
Change in Total Agricultural Sales
Spending for Local Government
Spending for School Districts
Children Living in Poverty
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Veterans Living in Poverty
Working Poor
Median Household Income by Household Type
Median Household Income
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Living Wage
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch
Median Home Value
Occupied Housing Units
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Median Rent
Cost of Renting
Households Without Vehicles
Means of Transportation to Work, by Race/Ethnicity
People Without Health Insurance
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity
Health Status
Prevalence of Mental Illness
Adults Who are Overweight or Obese
Mortality Rates
Mortality Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Fatal Drug Overdoses
Cancer Incidence
Households With Internet Access
High-Tech Jobs
STEM Graduates
Science and Engineering Research and Development
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Population by Race/Ethnicity
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity