Racial Equity


Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity, 2017-21

What does this measure?

Median household income, inflated to 2021 dollars, broken down by race/ethnicity. Half of incomes are below the median and half are above.

Why is this important?

Median household income is a gauge of overall economic health of the region and the financial resources of households. Examining income for different racial and ethnic groups is important as a measure of inequity.

How does our county compare?

In 2017-21, median incomes in Lancaster County were highest among Asian and white residents, at $75,949 and $75,945, respectively, and lowest among Hispanic and African American residents, at $53,493 and $48,998, respectively. The income disparity between white/Asian and African American/Hispanic earners was similar to the pattern of overall Pennsylvania and U.S. disparities. While Lancaster County median incomes were slightly above Pennsylvania averages for African Americans, Hispanics and whites, it was below the statewide median income for Asians.

Median incomes were lower for all groups in the City of Lancaster: $34,839 for Asians, $46,741 for African Americans, $45,108 for Hispanics and $58,366 for whites.

Asian and African American residents in Lancaster County saw median incomes drop between 2000 and 2017-21, Hispanics saw an increase, and median income among whites stayed essentially the same.

Why do these disparities exist?

These large and persistent disparities in income are the result of historic and current policies and practices that disadvantaged people of color. Research has connected slavery and the inability of black Americans even after emancipation to fully participate in economic life to the wealth and income gaps still present today. Structural racism perpetuated by policies and practices that systematically disadvantage African American and Latino communities include inequitable education, low wages, job and wage discrimination, lack of access to capital, and globalization. Even when a recovery from the current economic crisis occurs, it is not expected to make up for the pre-existing racial disparities experienced over time unless policies are enacted to address these gaps.

Notes about the data

Figures are in constant 2021 dollars. The multi-year figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are expected to be released in the fourth quarter.

Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity, 2017-21
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanicWhite
Lancaster County$75,949$48,998$53,493$75,945
Lancaster City$34,839*$46,741$45,108$58,366
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown boroughN/A***$69,141*N/A***$91,250*
Akron boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$65,863
Christiana boroughN/A***$53,281*N/A***$72,625
Columbia boroughN/A***$32,234***$31,069$48,558
Denver township$78,304*N/A***N/A***$70,938
East Petersburg boroughN/A***N/A***$96,591***$78,199
Elizabethtown boroughN/A***$65,435***N/A***$61,014
Ephrata boroughN/A***N/A***$35,478***$57,739
Lititz boroughN/A***N/A***$78,333***$75,613
Manheim boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$69,444
Marietta boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$65,281
Millersville borough$78,843***$84,590*N/A***$63,847
Mount Joy boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$71,835
Mountville boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$84,097*
New Holland boroughN/A***N/A***$167,901**$60,417*
Quarryville boroughN/A***N/A***$45,521***$71,500
Strasburg boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$79,640
Terre Hill boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$63,333*
Lancaster County Townships
Bart townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$73,190
Brecknock townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$85,856
Caernarvon townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$79,295*
Clay townshipN/A***N/A***$91,394**$73,720
Colerain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$78,164
Conestoga townshipN/A***N/A***$89,792***$79,080
Conoy townshipN/A***N/A***$63,507***$90,176*
Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$76,346
Earl townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$65,000
East Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***$206,198***$79,988
East Donegal townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$81,814
East Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$60,913
East Earl townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$91,431
East Hempfield township$100,714***$86,219*$63,164**$86,940
East Lampeter township$86,667*$48,854**$67,913**$77,264
Eden townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$73,083
Elizabeth townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$86,691*
Ephrata township$49,844*N/A***N/A***$66,392
Fulton townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$73,000
Lancaster township$146,019*$60,417***$54,375$67,939
Leacock townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$73,636
Little Britain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$53,802**
Manheim township$105,395*$68,125***$94,972*$87,302
Manor township$98,158***N/A***$65,417**$80,046
Martic townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$82,042
Mount Joy townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$88,652
Paradise townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$82,798
Penn township$101,550***N/A***N/A***$68,275
Pequea townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$92,582
Providence townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$75,020*
Rapho townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$78,031
Sadsbury townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$74,181
Salisbury townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$85,114
Strasburg townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$79,472*
Upper Leacock townshipN/A***$36,000$37,917**$79,735
Warwick township$36,094**N/A***$70,417***$81,833
West Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$73,272*
West Donegal townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$89,884*
West Earl township$94,784***N/A***$107,358***$84,515
West Hempfield township$104,667**N/A***$41,607**$83,642
West Lampeter township$58,673$185,257***N/A***$92,531
Berks County$59,337*$57,270$44,329$73,492
Chester County$143,936$60,629$75,902$112,470
Cumberland County$99,974$44,291*$57,365$77,736
Dauphin County$85,888*$44,387$47,874$73,666
Lebanon County$75,625*$47,860*$39,637$68,936
York County$76,281$49,552$47,527$74,952

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2020 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.