Financial Security
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity


Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22

What does this measure?

Median household income, inflated to 2022 dollars, broken down by race/ethnicity. Half of incomes are below the median and half are above.

Why is this important?

Median household income is a gauge of overall economic health of the region and the financial resources of households. Examining income for different racial and ethnic groups is important as a measure of inequity.

How does our county compare?

In 2018-22, median incomes in Lancaster County were highest among Asian and White residents, at $84,100 and $83,900, respectively, and lowest among Hispanic and African American residents, at $62,700 and $59,000, respectively. The income disparity between White/Asian and African American/Hispanic earners was similar to the pattern of overall Pennsylvania and U.S. disparities. While Lancaster County median incomes were slightly above Pennsylvania averages for African Americans, Hispanics and whites, it was below the statewide median income for Asians.

Median incomes were lower for all groups in the City of Lancaster: $43,400 for Asians, $54,300 for African Americans, $50,700 for Hispanics and $68,400 for Whites.

All racial groups in Lancaster County saw median incomes increase between 2008-12 and 2018-22.

Why do these disparities exist?

These large and persistent disparities in income are the result of historic and current policies and practices that disadvantaged people of color. Research has connected slavery and the inability of black Americans even after emancipation to fully participate in economic life to the wealth and income gaps still present today. Structural racism perpetuated by policies and practices that systematically disadvantage African American and Latino communities include inequitable education, low wages, job and wage discrimination, lack of access to capital, and globalization. Even when a recovery from the current economic crisis occurs, it is not expected to make up for the pre-existing racial disparities experienced over time unless policies are enacted to address these gaps.

Notes about the data

Figures are in constant 2022 dollars. The multi-year figures are from the Census Bureau's American Community Survey. The bureau combined five years of responses to the survey to provide estimates for smaller geographic areas and increase the precision of its estimates. However, because the information came from a survey, the samples responding to the survey were not always large enough to produce reliable results, especially in small geographic areas. CGR has noted on data tables the estimates with relatively large margins of error. Estimates with three asterisks have the largest margins, plus or minus 50% or more of the estimate. Two asterisks mean plus or minus 35%-50%, and one asterisk means plus or minus 20%-35%. For all estimates, the confidence level is 90%, meaning there is 90% probability the true value (if the whole population were surveyed) would be within the margin of error (or confidence interval). The survey provides data on characteristics of the population that used to be collected only during the decennial census. Data for this indicator are expected to be released in the fourth quarter.

Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity, 2018-22
AsianBlack or African AmericanHispanic or LatinoWhite
Lancaster County$84,138$59,045$62,743$83,891
Lancaster City$43,417*$54,297*$50,662*$68,422
Lancaster County School Districts
School District of Lancaster$71,193*$58,125*$56,738$72,496
Cocalico School District$86,875*$90,417***$135,583***$86,343
Columbia Borough School DistrictN/A***$47,353**$38,629*$53,446
Conestoga Valley School District$63,698***$39,886**$76,108$86,192
Donegal School DistrictN/A***$39,853***$65,469***$87,213
Eastern Lancaster County School District$88,156***N/A***$67,500***$84,214
Elizabethtown Area School District$228,469***$70,804**$63,971**$80,667
Ephrata Area School District$76,466$26,011**$39,191***$69,886
Hempfield School District$100,677**$61,932***$68,239*$93,299
Lampeter-Strasburg School District$63,389**N/A***$71,069**$99,357
Manheim Central School DistrictN/A***N/A***$65,625*$79,100
Manheim Township School District$110,302$76,364***$74,135*$91,915
Penn Manor School District$83,865*$91,118$72,060*$88,732
Pequea Valley School DistrictN/A***$70,438**$62,039***$86,961
Solanco School DistrictN/A***$50,521**$98,558**$74,389
Warwick School DistrictN/A***$98,162***$79,259*$86,221
Lancaster County Boroughs
Adamstown boroughN/A***$90,625***N/A***$98,056
Akron boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$68,293
Christiana boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$75,536
Columbia boroughN/A***$47,353**$38,629*$53,446
Denver townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$76,042
East Petersburg boroughN/A***N/A***$162,664***$86,497
Elizabethtown boroughN/A***$70,574***$26,108***$65,917
Ephrata boroughN/A***N/A***$38,652***$63,905
Lititz borough$227,857***N/A***N/A***$78,641
Manheim boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$76,142
Marietta boroughN/A***$80,682*N/A***$71,875
Millersville boroughN/A***$92,188*N/A***$64,799
Mount Joy boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$81,591
Mountville boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$84,510*
New Holland boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$58,536*
Quarryville boroughN/A***N/A***$51,042***$85,700
Strasburg boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$85,753
Terre Hill boroughN/A***N/A***N/A***$67,643*
Lancaster County Townships
Bart townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$78,625
Brecknock townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$90,921
Caernarvon townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$92,569*
Clay townshipN/A***N/A***$98,261***$72,750*
Colerain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$80,543
Conestoga townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$86,944*
Conoy townshipN/A***N/A***$69,484***$78,472**
Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$83,083
Earl townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$77,500
East Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***$139,444***$92,600
East Donegal townshipN/A***N/A***$52,500***$101,114
East Drumore townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$63,167
East Earl townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$99,221
East Hempfield township$92,279**$64,750***$68,656$95,573
East Lampeter township$86,563***$50,201***$76,798$78,438
Eden townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$80,329
Elizabeth townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$99,073
Ephrata township$82,829***N/A***N/A***$75,444
Fulton townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$74,243
Lancaster township$159,566$61,053***$67,740$95,135
Leacock townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$85,112
Little Britain townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$54,579**
Manheim township$110,302$76,364***$73,654*$91,840
Manor township$74,529***$83,214*$77,850*$89,435
Martic townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$88,293
Mount Joy townshipN/A***N/A***$63,971***$97,227
Paradise townshipN/A***$100,608***N/A***$90,525*
Penn townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$76,269
Pequea townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$101,875
Providence townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$82,752
Rapho townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$88,446
Sadsbury townshipN/A***N/A***$112,550**$81,302
Salisbury townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$89,583
Strasburg townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$107,976*
Upper Leacock townshipN/A***$38,412***$41,174**$93,906
Warwick townshipN/A***N/A***$79,398**$88,379
West Cocalico townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$82,234
West Donegal townshipN/A***N/A***N/A***$93,229*
West Earl township$100,602**N/A***$114,012*$91,087
West Hempfield township$110,938*$49,324***$47,612**$95,558
West Lampeter township$63,389**$200,110***$71,613$101,264
Berks County$59,063*$62,606$51,921$80,524
Chester County$156,362$62,870$87,110$121,794
Cumberland County$114,804$48,542$64,946$83,085
Dauphin County$93,457$50,355$53,333$78,162
Lebanon County$73,631$54,683*$46,780$75,259
York County$96,250*$53,391$50,802$81,150

Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Notes: Figures in 2022 dollars. Multiyear results are from rolling American Community Survey. * Margin of error between 20% & 35% of estimate; ** margin of error between 35% & 50%; *** margin of error greater than 50%. The Census Bureau asks people to identify their race (white, African-American, etc.) separate from their ethnicity (Hispanic or non-Hispanic). So the totals for these categories cannot be added together, as people show up in both a racial and ethnic group.

Prekindergarten Participation Increasing
Student Performance on Grade 3 English Not Applicable
Student Performance on Grade 8 Math Not Applicable
High School Cohort Graduation Rate Increasing
Per-Student Spending Maintaining
Students Receiving Special Education Services Increasing
Rate of Foster Care Admissions Maintaining
Disengaged Youth Maintaining
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Plans of High School Graduates Not Applicable
Enrollment in Local Colleges Decreasing
College Graduation Rates Decreasing
Brain Drain/Gain Increasing
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Average Charitable Giving Maintaining
Voter Registration Rate Not Applicable
Voter Participation Rate Increasing
Age of Housing Stock Not Applicable
Violent Crime Rate Maintaining
Incarceration Rate Decreasing
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Population Density Increasing
Air Quality Decreasing
Water Use Decreasing
Waterways Impaired by Pollution Not Applicable
Change in Population Increasing
Change in Population by Age and Gender Not Applicable
Population by Age Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People with Disabilities Maintaining
Foreign-Born Population Increasing
Language Diversity Increasing
Change in Total Jobs Increasing
Change in Employment by Sector Not Applicable
Sector Share of Total Jobs Not Applicable
Workers by Occupation Not Applicable
Change in Labor Force Maintaining
People Entering/Leaving County/Region for Work Not Applicable
Average Salary by Sector Not Applicable
Change in Average Salary Since 2000 Increasing
Female to Male Earnings Ratio Maintaining
Employer Size Not Applicable
Change in Number of Businesses by Sector Increasing
Change in Total Agricultural Sales Increasing
Spending for Local Government Maintaining
Spending for School Districts Maintaining
Children Living in Poverty Decreasing
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty Decreasing
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Veterans Living in Poverty Maintaining
Working Poor Decreasing
Median Household Income by Household Type Not Applicable
Median Household Income Maintaining
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Living Wage Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Household Receiving Temporary Assistance Maintaining
Students Eligible for Free/Reduced Price Lunch Increasing
Median Home Value Maintaining
Occupied Housing Units Maintaining
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Rent Maintaining
Cost of Renting Increasing
Households Without Vehicles Maintaining
Means of Transportation to Work, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Without Health Insurance Decreasing
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Health Status Decreasing
Prevalence of Mental Illness Maintaining
Adults Who are Overweight or Obese Not Applicable
Mortality Rates Decreasing
Mortality Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Increasing
Fatal Drug Overdoses Increasing
Cancer Incidence Decreasing
Households With Internet Access Increasing
High-Tech Jobs Increasing
STEM Graduates Increasing
Science and Engineering Research and Development Maintaining
Single-Parent Families by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Education Levels of Adults by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Incarceration Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Population by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Children in Poverty by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
People Living in Poverty, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Median Household Income, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Unemployment Rate by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Households Receiving SNAP by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Homeownership Rate, by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Cost of Homeownership by Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable
Early Prenatal Care by Mother's Race/Ethnicity Not Applicable